Acute post-traumatic renal failure is one of the most serious complications that can affect polytrauma patients, with a high morbidity and mortality. The kidney is vulnerable to developing acute renal failure by virtue of the arrangement of its blood supply and the high metabolic demands involved in the production of urine. While several intrinsic mechanisms exist to protect the kidney, these may be swamped following polytrauma. In particular haemorrhage and hypotension can lead to early renal failure; and the massive release of cytokines occurring in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome can lead to renal failure as part of the multiorgan failure syndrome.
Key words: Trauma, Acute Renal Failure, Acute Kidney Injury, Multiorgan Failure Syndrome.