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Hellenic Journal of Nursing Science (HJNS)

  • Guide for Authors

    Manuscript submission must be via the e mail address: journal@enne.gr.

    HJNS guarantees a quick peer-review process which will be finished within a maximum of two months period.

  • Publication Fees

    There are no publication fees.

  • Types of Papers

    -Original Research: full length experimental or clinical research papers providing innovative knowledge to the biomedical literature.

    -Brief Reports (Short Communications): short reports on issues of special interest or innovation which do not exceed 4 printed pages (approx. 1500 words).

    -Review Papers: “Mini reviews”, “Literature reviews” or “Meta analyses” presenting data on a specialized field and written by experienced authors are welcomed

    – Hypotheses: papers presenting untested original hypotheses backed up solely by a survey of previously published results rather than any new evidence.

    -Editorials: invited comments analysing the outcome and emphasizing on the importance of a paper in the same issue of the Journal in which they appear.


    -Commentaries (Letters to the Editor): responses to papers published in previous issues of the HJNS reflecting a basis of scientific discussion among qualified academicians.

  • Languages of the journal

    Greek and English: Manuscripts in English or in Greek language are equally accepted. If submitted in English by authors who are not fluent in English or not native English speakers it is highly recommended to ensure that the manuscripts are edited by a fluent/native English speaker prior to submission.

  • General guidelines

    The Editor decides for the shortest possible publication time, based on various criteria such as submission date, the ratio of research and review papers per issue, avoid to include papers from the same author in one issue and papers with similar themes etc. The priority for publication is based on acceptance date rather submission date.

    The Editorial Board reserves the right to perform minor changes in form and context of the paper, however substantial modifications, especially regarding the context, will be made only with the consent of the authors.

    The authors of the research studies (primary and secondary) cannot be more than six (6), except on special occasions (eg in the case of interdisciplinary, large-scale, multicenter studies). The authors of other types of papers cannot be more than three (3), with the possible exception of some general methodological type articles or clinical guidelines.

  • Check list

    In each submitted paper, authors should include the following (for your convenience, tick beside what you have submitted):

    1. Cover Letter (there is a model template)
    2. Title page
    3. Abstract page
    4. Key Points page
    5. Main text of the paper
    6. Contribution of authors
    7. Financing (if applicable)
    8. Acknowledgments (if any)
    9. Previous publication (if any)
    10. Reference list
    11. Tables and figures

    Generic names of medication and chemicals are preferred; if trade names are used, the generic name should be given at least at first mention.

    The paper’s text must be sectioned as: ‘Introduction’, ‘Methods’, ‘Results’, ‘Discussion’, ‘Acknowledgments’ (if any) and ‘References’. A joined ‘Results and Discussion’ section should be avoided. Each section should begin on a separate page. Discussion should end with one or more concluding paragraphs without a separate heading.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

    Tables: all tables should be numbered using Arabic numerals and be placed after references. Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. For each table, please supply a table caption explaining the components of the table. Any previously published material has to be identified by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.

    Figures: figures should be in the form of TIF (TIFF) or JPG (JPEG) files and with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi. Figures will automatically be incorporated into the final paper PDF. Legends for the figures have to be placed at the end of the main document after tables. Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure legend. All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals. Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. Cite your figure files with “Fig” and the figure number (e.g., Fig.1). Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc).

    Reference citing and styling: References are cited according Harvard (Revised for 2009 version 3.0 editions of: The Coventry University (CU) Harvard Reference Style Guide v3.0, Quickstart Guide v3.0, Glossaryv3.0) and the system of American Psychological Association (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5).

    The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication, with identical registration, dictation and order of authors. It is highlighted that use of another author’s text without proper citation constitutes plagiarism.

    In-text Citations: The basic principle is to give the surname of the author or the corporate author and the year of publication in brackets without comma between them (author date) (e.g. Brown 2002).

    In case of two authors use both surnames in brackets with “&” between them and the year of publication (e.g. Cullingworth & Nadin 2007).

    For up to three authors, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” (e.g. Fletcher et al 2006).

    Νote: although only one surname is given, you are referring to multiple authors, so the next verb in your sentence must agree in the plural rather than the singular (e.g. Fletcher et al. (2006) suggest that in this century global climate change has caused billions of dollars worth of damage.).

    When publications of the same author in the same year mentioned, Latin letters of the alphabet (a, b, c, etc.) should be placed following the year in brackets (e.g. (Smith 2004a), (Smith 2004b).).

    In multiple citations, the indication in brackets is based on the year of publication, starting with the oldest one (e.g. (Midgley 1994, Smith 1994, UNCHS 1996, Gandelsonas 2002)).

    In case of using concepts or definitions mentioned in another manuscript “word by word”, quotes have to be used and in brackets, except the surname and the year of publication, the page number should be mentioned as well (e.g. The author stated “The effect disappeared within minutes” (Lopez 1993, p. 311), but she did not say which effect. or Lopez (1993, p. 311) found that “the effect disappeared within minutes”, but she did not say which effect.

    The List of References: The basic principle is that the entries in this list must link with the in-text citations by starting with the same author and date.

    In the list, references are placed in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author without any numbering or other markings (e.g. bullets). The second row enters recessed.

    Books and Journals should be mentioned with full titles, avoiding abbreviations, in italics.

    In case of two authors “&” has to be used as well as in case of up to three authors, before the surname of the last one.

    Example:

    Johnson M., Steward H., Langdon R., Kelly P. & Yong L. (2005). A comparison of the outcomes of partnership caseload midwifery and standard hospital care in low risk mothers. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 22: 21-27.

    A book: Give the author’s surname and initials then the year in brackets, then the title in italics followed by a full stop. Finally, give the place of publication followed by a colon then the publisher.

    Example:

    Dagorne, FG. (2003) French Cultural Developments: A Feminist Perspective. London: Macmillan.

    A book produced by an organisation (a corporate author): Give the name of the organisation as the author then the year of publication in brackets followed by the title in italics and then a full stop. Finally, give the place of publication followed by a colon then the publisher.

    Example:

    British Medical Association, Board of Science and Education.(1980). Alternative Medicine Reviewed. London: Harwood Academic.

    An electronic book: Give the surname and initials of the author then the year in brackets and the title in italics. Write ‘online’ in square brackets, then give the edition if appropriate, the place of publication, a colon, then the publisher followed by a full stop. Write ‘available from’ and give the full web site address starting with then the date of access in square brackets.

    Example:

    Potter, H. (2005). An Introduction to Human Anatomy [online] 4th edn. London: Adam Arnold. Available from <http://anatomy/introduction/human/htm> [Accessed: 27 March 2006].

    A printed journal paper: Give the author’s surname and initials then the year in brackets then put the title of the paper within single quotation marks, followed by a full stop. Give the title of the journal in italics then the volume number followed by the issue number in brackets if there is one, then the pages in between which the paper is found after a comma. When you are giving in-text citations you can use et al. for more than three authors, but in t he List of References you should give all the authors in order to credit them fully.

    Example:

    Potter, F., Pavliotis, M., Kiran, D., Qureshi, HA., & Ball, R. (2005). ‘White Noise and Ppaper Behaviour’. Journal of Mathematics and Physics 2 (1), 67-81

    An electronic journal paper: should be treated as a printed source mentioning the entire URL and the date of access.

    Example:

    Dhillon, B. (2004) ‘Should Doctors Wear Ties?’ Medical Monthly [online] 3 (1), 55-88. Available from <http://hospitals/infections/latest-advice/htm> [Accessed: 20 April 2006]

    A report: Give the author’s surname and initials or the corporate author then the year in brackets. Write the title of the report in italics, the series number if appropriate, and then a full stop. Finally, give the place of publication followed by a colon then the publisher.

    Example:

    Department of Health Committee of Dietetics. (2006). A Report on Dietary Health no. 41. London: Stationary Office

    A leaflet: Give the author’s surname and initials or the corporate author, then the date in brackets. Give the title of the leaflet in italics followed by a full stop. Write ‘leaflet’ then add a full stop and give the place and the institution where it was displayed.

    Example:

    National Health Service. (2009). Catch It, Bin It, Kill It . Leaflet. Coventry: Walsgrave Hospital.

    A conference paper within conference proceedings: Give the author’s surname and initials then the year in brackets. Put the title of the paper within single quotation marks followed by a full stop. Write ‘in’ then give the surname and initials of the editor of the Conference Proceeding s followed by ‘ed.’ in brackets. Give the title of the Conference Proceedings in italics followed by a comma, then give the title of the Conference within single quotation marks followed by a full stop. Write ‘held’ and then give the full date of the Conference then write ‘at’ and give the place. Finally, give the place of publication followed by a colon then the publisher. Add a comma and the page numbers of the paper.

    Example:

    Shah, A. (1990) ‘Neuro-rehabilitation Services in the Midlands’. in Wood, P. (ed.) Proceedings of the Coventry Conference on Local Psychology Provision, ‘Practical Psychology: How to Improve’. held 7-9 March 1990 at Coventry University. London: Prentice Hall, 8-20

    Give the author’s surname and initials then the year in brackets. Give the title in italics followed by a full stop. Write ‘Unpublished PhD thesis’ or ‘Unpublished dissertation’ as appropriate then add a full stop and give the place and the name of the university.

    Example:

    Jones, M. (2000). An Evaluation of Learning Through Writing. Unpublished PhD thesis. Coventry: Coventry University

    A web site (or other online media): Give the author’s surname and initials or the name of the organisation that produced the web site as a corporate author. Give the year it was created or last updated in brackets. Give the title in italics (you may need to make up an appropriate title), then write ‘online’ in square brackets. Write ‘available from’ and give the full web site address starting with then write the date of access in square brackets.

    Example:

    Centre for Academic Writing. (2006). The List of References Illustrated [online] available from [Accessed: 20 July 2006]

    Note: If the website does not have a date, it is best to write ‘n. d.’ instead which means no date.

  • Publication Ethics


    Manuscripts submitted for publication must contain a statement (cover letter) to the effect that all human studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. It should also be stated clearly in the text that all participants gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under study should be omitted.
Submission of a manuscript implies that the paper has not been published, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication has been approved by all co-authors as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where it has been carried out. These details have also to be included in the cover letter. The publisher will not be held legally responsible if there should be any claims for compensation.

    Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to be originated from the authors.
The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.

  • Conflict of Interest

    Authors must indicate whether or not they have a financial or other relationship with entities that have commercial interest in the research. This note should be added in a separate section before the reference list. If no conflict exists, authors should state: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  • Manuscript Submission and Preparation

    Manuscripts have to be submitted online, in the following format:

    Title Page:

    Title page should be up to 25 words (lowercase bold characters), full name(s) and affiliations of all author(s), postal and e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author(s) and submission date.

    Abstract page: the abstract page should include the paper title (lowercase bold characters), the word abstract in bold capital letters. It should not excess 250-300 words and should be followed by 3 to 6 keywords in alphabetical order and divided by a comma.

    For review papers, the abstract should be separated into 2 to 4 paragraphs including an introductory viewpoint, information and discussion around the main topic and final considerations, without specifically named subheadings.

    The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

    Highlights/ Key points:

    Example:

    Papadopoulos D, Vasiliou G, Georgiou A (2014). Professional burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis. Hellenic Journal of Nursing Science, 5: 14-20.

    Highlights /key points

    • Discussion of burnout from the perspective of the employee.
    • Chronic burnout is conceptualized as a crucial moderator of daily functioning.
    • Burnout increases according to daily job demands.
    • Burnout decreases according to daily job resources.
    • Employees with high levels of burnout need tailored help.
  • Contribution of authors.

    All authors cited in an article should have actively contributed to data collection and writing (if a review), or in the study design, collection and analysis of data, interpretation of results and writing the article (if it is research). Their contribution will transpire in any of the above points, in a distinct manner for everyone and included after the main text and before the reference list. All authors should have studied the content and approved the final version of the paper submitted for publication. Participation only in the funding search of the research, or only in data collection does not justify a reference among authors, which is substituted with the expression of acknowledgements.

    Example: IK (author initials) analysed data and contributed in results interpretation and text writing. PG and DK: participated in planning of the research and data collection. All authors critically evaluated and approved paper submission.

  • Acknowledgements

    During electronic submission, authors may fill in their acknowledgements to people, institutions etc. that substantially helped in the development of their work, explaining the reasons for financial support, data collection, etc.

  • Prior publication

    In any case of the paper or part of it has been published anywhere else, it should be mentioned accordingly.

  • Tables-Figures

    Tables and figures are listed at the end of the paper, each on a separate page. However, within the main text of the article should be tucked in parentheses indicated (Table XX somewhere here).

    • They should be numbered in Arabic numerals (1,2,3) and reported in turn of appearance in the text (eg Table XX, within the text).
    • They must be accompanied by a short title and indicate the source, if not from primary material.
    • The extent of each table should not exceed one page.
    • In case of using material (tables, figures) already published elsewhere, it should be ensured that permission from the original authors, or those who hold the copyright, has been granted. Authors of published articles are held responsible for any copyright problems.
    • Abbreviations within the tables, figures, etc should be explained in the bottom of each one of them, in the form of a footnote.
    • Use font size 8-10
    • horizontal and vertical lines of each table should not be visible, except up and down and underneath column titles.

    Appendixes should be avoided. If necessary listed on a separate page, after reference list and before the tables.

    Text formatting: manuscripts should be submitted in MS Word format. The authors are suggested to use 1.5 spaced 12-point Times New Roman letters with 2.54 cm margins on A4 pages (or 1 inch margins on Letter sheets).
Page numbers should be placed on right down corner of the manuscript.

    To maintain anonymity, in the article names of individuals, hospitals or other entities have to be avoided. They can be described in general terms as “.. the study sample were patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a Greek, general regional hospital … .. “.

    Abbreviations should be defined the first time they appear in the manuscript and used consistently thereafter. Avoid excessive use of abbreviations If the paper includes an excessive number of abbreviations, the authors should additionally add a list for all abbreviations used.

    Underlines, bold or italics within the text are prohibited. Paragraphs should be used in order for the text to be more understandable. Use 1 tab at the beginning of the paragraph.

    Headings and subheadings need to be of the following format:

    Level 1: capital bold characters

    Level 2: lowercase bold characters

    Level 3: lowercase italics characters

    Each paper should have the following according to its type:

    Review papers:

    Descriptive or narrative reviews present the results of a literature review during a given period of time, or the prioritised results of new research. Review papers should promote nursing science, be submitted by no more than 3 authors up to 5000 words (excluding tables, graphs and summary). In exceptional cases it can be extended up to 7000 words, if justified by the nature and results of research and after approval of the editor.
    The structure should be as follows:

    Title, abstract, key-words, introduction, main topic and conclusions.

    Abstract should be uniform and up to 250 words.

    Introduction should be written in such a way that the healthcare professionals without expertise in the particular field could understand the topic under study understand the matter under investigation. Introduction concludes with a brief reference to the aim of the article,

    Main topic is divided into sub-sections (chapters and subchapters) depending on the results of the literature review.

    Conclusions: a summary or repetition of the results given to the main subject. It includes the contribution to existing knowledge, proposed topics for practice modification or for future research.

    Systematic review papers:

    Systematic reviews are secondary researches based on certain principles and require specific methodological steps. HJNS accepts systematic reviews, involving up to six authors, up to 5000 words (excluding tables, graphs and summary). In exceptional cases it can be extended up to 7000 words, if justified by the nature and results of research and after approval of the editor. The paper should follow the following structure:

    Title, abstract, key-words, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusions and contribution of each author.

    The abstract should be structured in separate parts: introduction which states the aim and scope of the study, methods (how the survey was conducted and the statistics used), results (the main findings) and conclusions (including possible effects). It is recommended to minimize the abbreviations and to avoid references. The abstract should not exceed 250 words.

    Introduction should be written in such a way that the healthcare professionals without expertise in the particular field could understand the matter under investigation. Introduction concludes with a brief reference to the aim of the research/paper.

    Methods refers to data analysis methodology, data collection, the description of the studies identified, inclusion-exclusion criteria and methodological quality of the material.

    Results could be divided into subchapters.

    Discussion includes the way that the results can be theoretical and practical applied, the agreement or disagreement with similar researches. Strengths and weaknesses of the research are included and the possibility to generalise.

    Conclusions are not a summary or repetition of the results. They include the contribution to existing knowledge, proposed topics for practice modification or for future research.

    In a systematic review paper a flow-chart with the review process, a catalogue of papers included (sample, methods, results) and statistical analysis of results should be included, as well as the contribution of each author (only with initials)

  • Quantitative or empirical research papers

    Empirical research is a form of primary research and approach through direct or indirect observation of a phenomenon. It is based on observations and measurements, which are analysed either quantitatively or qualitatively. Quantitative research refers to systematically investigated phenomena through statistical and mathematical tests. HJNS accepts original empirical quantitative researches involving up to six authors, up to 5000 words (excluding tables, graphs, bibliography and abstract). In exceptional cases it can be extended up to 7000 words, if justified by the nature and results of research and after approval of the editor. Text formatting should be as the general submission guidelines:

    Title, abstract, key-words, introduction, methods (planning, sample, data collection, ethics, statistical analysis), results, discussion, conclusions and contribution of each author.

    The abstract should be structured in separate parts: introduction which presents the theoretical background of the research, aim, methods (planning of the research, sample, when and where the research was conducted and the statistics used), results (the main findings) and conclusions (including possible suggestions for implementation of new knowledge to practice). It is recommended to minimize the abbreviations and to avoid references. The abstract should not exceed 250 words.

    Main manuscript should include the following chapters.

    Introduction should include the rationale, context and significance of the paper on nursing or health sciences, internationally. It also includes the scientific and theoretical context in which the research is based. In this section the theoretical and operational definitions of concepts and variables included in the study and their relationship to the theoretical background. Much attention should be given to critical evaluation of references, in order to be representative, up to date and relevant to the issue studied. References should be limited to 30. If the study concerns Greek population, Greek literature should be included, if available.

    In the end, in a separate paragraph, the aim and objectives of the study should be included. When possible, research hypotheses should be clearly stated and tested in the course of the study. The extent of the introduction should not exceed three text pages.

    Methods should include the following:

    Planning indicates the type of research design used (descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, cross-sectional, cohort, etc.) and the research plan. Where possible (mainly in interventional studies) a flowchart by CONSORT can be included.Sample and population are described. Type and sampling must be indicated (randomized, stratified, convenience, deliberate etc), as well as the inclusion and exclusion criteria in the study (where possible). It is important to include in detail the sample selection. Finally, the way the sample was calculated should be presented.In data collection the place, the way and period of sampling (no more than five years prior to submission date). Describe the techniques and data collection tools. If popular and weighted questionnaires are used, describe in detail and include them in references, including the weighting process.Detailed statistical analysis should be included.In results characteristics (demographic, clinical, etc.) of the sample, with corresponding table should be described. Response rate of the sample, in case of research carried out by questionnaires, should be stated. Tables with complete data relating to the variables tested should be included, and in the text reference only of the most important results in relation to the research hypotheses. Diagrams should be included only when important information are not presented in the table. Each table or figure should be numbered and referred in the text with the necessary evidence (see general instructions).  Discussion is not a repetition of results, but focuses on the main results, summarising and interpreting them. Furthermore, the purpose of the discussion is to compare the results/findings with those of already existing literature and concludes whether the research questions were answered (it should be stated if through the results confirmed or rejected the initial research hypotheses, if any). At this point it is highlighted the way that the results can be applied theoretical and practical, emphasizing new knowledge resulting from the article. Also indicate the strengths and weaknesses of research (restrictions), and the possibility or not, generalizability of the findings.

    Introduction should be written in such a way that the healthcare professionals without expertise in the particular field could understand the matter under investigation. Introduction concludes with a brief reference to the aim of the research/paper.

    Methods refers to data analysis methodology, data collection, the description of the studies identified, inclusion-exclusion criteria and methodological quality of the material.

    Results could be divided into subchapters.

    Discussion includes the way that the results can be theoretical and practical applied, the agreement or disagreement with similar researches. Strengths and weaknesses of the research are included and the possibility to generalise.

    Conclusions are not a summary or repetition of the results. It includes the contribution to existing knowledge, proposed topics for practice modification or for future research.