Obesity is one of the most important problems of modern societies, and is considered a modern plague which tends to evolve to a global pandemic. Premenopausal women, most of the times, manifest hormonal dysfunctions and dysfunctions in their metabolism. The consequences are weight gain, heart diseases, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine if vitamin D levels and Glycosylated hemoglobin are affected by exercise and if there is a connection between Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin.
Method: The research involved 48 healthy premenopausal women who answered questionnaires which included questions about their height, weight, waist circumference, lifestyle and history of menstruation. This questionnaire, after due electronic approval, was based on a model of the German Sports and Research Centre (Karlsruhe Institut Fuer Sport und Sportwissenschaft). Women, after having completed a consent form, were also subjected to laboratory testing to determine their insulin, vitamin D levels and Glycosylated hemoglobin levels. To specify the vitamin D and insulin levels a method of direct chemiluminescence was used, and Glycosylated hemoglobin identification was specified using an automated light metering method. Statistical analysis performed using ΙΒΜ SPSS 22.
Results: At the premenopausal women (41+/-7ετών) (BMI24+/-4 kg/m2) a significant impact during the time of the exercises in the glycosylated hemoglobin (p = 0.038 <0.05) was found. Also, there was a marginal statistical difference (p = 0.067> 0.05) regarding the levels of Glycosylated hemoglobin and the combination of exercise with other physical activities. Finally, a significant correlation between BMI and insulin (p=0.001<0.05) was detected. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference found in vitamin D levels relative to physical activity.
Conclusion: During the research it was found that BMI influences the secretion of insulin, and insulin resistance that is a metabolism disorder, is a result of obesity. Encouraging overweight women to increase physical activity and seek weight loss should be a key point to avoiding metabolic diseases.
Keywords: glucose metabolism, insulin, obesity, premenopausal women, vitamin